This is about a quarter of the total turnover in the bio-economy, including food and beverages and the primary sectors agriculture and forestry: € 2.3 trillion in the EU-28. The bioeconomy employs 18.5 million people in total, of which 55% are active in primary biomass production.
This is shown in a new study of macroeconomic effects of activities in the bio-based industries by the Nova Institute. The study was first conducted in 2016 on behalf of the Bio-based Industries Consortium (BIC) and has now been updated with new data for 2014 and 2015.
Bio-based industries include chemicals and plastics, pharmaceuticals, paper and paper products, forest-based industries, textile sector, biofuels and bioenergy.